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Glossary of Terms N - Z
Please find below a list of words and terms found within this website and a brief definition of their meaning. The glossary is here to assist in understanding the new terminology and language that comes with learning you have Lyme Disease. In no way is this a complete list of all words and phrases used in the Lyme journey, but rather a brief overview of words found within the Lyme Advise website. The Glossary will be updated regularly to reflect new content.
Nanotechnology - the branch of technology that deals with dimensions and tolerances of less than 100 nanometers, especially the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules.
Naturopathy - a system or method of treating disease that employs no surgery or synthetic drugs but uses special diets, herbs, vitamins, massage, etc., to assist the natural healing processes.
Near Infrared - pertaining to or being in the infrared spectrum that is closest to visible light
Negative Ions - an electrically charged atom or group of atoms formed by the loss or gain of one or more electrons, as a cation (positive ion), which is created by electron loss and is attracted to the cathode in electrolysis, or as an anion (negative ion), which is created by an electron gain and is attracted to the anode.
Neuroborreliosis - a disease of the central nervous system caused by infection with a spirochete of the genus Borrelia; especially :a late stage of Lyme disease typically involving the skin, joints, and central nervous system.
Neurodegenerative Disease - an umbrella term for a range of conditions which primarily affect the neurons in the human brain. Neurons are the building blocks of the nervous system which includes the brain and spinal cord.
Neurologist - a specialist in the anatomy, functions, and organic disorders of nerves and the nervous system
Neuropathy - disease or dysfunction of one or more peripheral nerves, typically causing numbness or weakness.
Neuropsychology - the study of the relationship between behavior, emotion, and cognition on the one hand, and brain function on the other.
Neurovascular Disease - Neurovascular disease encompasses any abnormality of the blood vessels within or supplying the brain and spine. This includes narrowing of arteries, which reduces blood flow to the brain and increases the risk of stroke (particularly “ischemic” stroke), and weakening of arteries, which may create brain aneurysms and increases the risk of intracranial bleeding (or “hemorrhagic” stroke.)
Nervous System - system of the body that in vertebrates includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs and receives, interprets, and responds to stimuli from inside and outside the body.
NIH - (National Institute for Health) An agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the NIH is the Federal focal point for health and medical research.
Noninvasive - (of medical procedures) not requiring the introduction of instruments into the body
Nutritional Medicine - the relationship of food to the well-being of the human body. It also encompasses the study of environmental effects on the quality of foods, and the impact of nutritional factors on health and disease.
Nutrients - a substance that provides nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) - n anxiety disorder in which people have unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, images, and sensations (obsessions) and engage in behaviors or mental acts in response to these thoughts or obsessions.
Ondamed - a battery-powered biofeedback device that a medical practitioner uses to determine which frequencies of sound, as well as the accompanying weak pulsed electromagnetic fields, cause a response in a patient's autonomic nervous system
Orthopedist - a physician who corrects congenital or functional abnormalities of the bones with surgery, casting, and bracing.
Osteopathy - a branch of medical practice that emphasizes the treatment of medical disorders through the manipulation and massage of the bones, joints, and muscles
Otolaryngology - the study of diseases of the ear and throat.
Out-Of-Pocket - from cash on hand : with one's own money rather than with money from another source
Oxidative Stress - is essentially an imbalance between the production of free radicals and the ability of the body to counteract or detoxify their harmful effects through neutralization by antioxidants
Oxygenation - The addition of oxygen to any system, including the human body. Oxygenation may also refer to the process of treating a patient with oxygen, or of combining a medication or other substance with oxygen.
Ozone Therapy - a form of alternative medicine treatment that purports to increase the amount of oxygen in the body through the introduction of ozone. Various techniques have been suggested, with purported benefits including the treatment of cancer, AIDS, multiple sclerosis, and Lyme disease among others
Pain Management - medical approach that draws on disciplines in science and alternative healing to study the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of pain; programs can employ massage therapy, analgesic medications, physical therapy, epidural steroid injections, and alternative therapies among others
Patient Advocate - an area of specialization in health care concerned with advocacy for patients, survivors, and carers. The patient advocate may be an individual or an organization, often, though not always, concerned with one specific group of disorders.
PANDAS - Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is a hypothesis that there exists a subset of children with rapid onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or tic disorders and these symptoms are caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections.
Pandemic - a disease prevalent over a whole country or the world
PANS - the acronym for Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome, a more recently defined disorder which encompasses the more familiar medical condition, PANDAS or Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal infections
Paradigm - a standard, perspective, or set of ideas.
Panic Disorder - a psychiatric disorder in which debilitating anxiety and fear arise frequently and without reasonable cause.
Paradoxical - not being the normal or usual kind
Parkinson's Disease - a progressive disease of the nervous system marked by tremor, muscular rigidity, and slow, imprecise movement, chiefly affecting middle-aged and elderly people. It is associated with degeneration of the basal ganglia of the brain and a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Pathogen - a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease.
PCR Testing - is used to reproduce (amplify) selected sections of DNA or RNA for analysis. Previously, amplification of DNA involved cloning the segments of interest into vectors for expression in bacteria, and took weeks. But now, with PCR done in test tubes, it takes only a few hours.
Peptide - a compound consisting of two or more amino acids linked in a chain, the carboxyl group of each acid being joined to the amino group of the next by a bond of the type -OC-NH-
Phobic Disorder - a persistent, irrational fears and avoidance of the situations or objects that induce these fears
Phototherapy - the use of light in the treatment of physical or mental illness.
PICC Line - A peripherally inserted central catheter, less commonly called a percutaneous indwelling central catheter, is a form of intravenous access that can be used for a prolonged period of time (e.g., for long chemotherapy regimens, extended antibiotic therapy, or total parenteral nutrition) or for administration of substances that should not be done peripherally. It is a catheter that enters the body through the skin (percutaneously) at a peripheral site, extends to the superior vena cava (a central venous trunk), and stays in place (dwells within the veins) for days or weeks.
Platelet Adhesion - the adherence of platelets to any area with damaged blood vessels; an important component of hemostasis.
Prescription - an instruction written by a medical practitioner that authorizes a patient to be provided a medicine or treatment.
Port - A central venous catheter is a tube that goes into a vein in your chest and ends at your heart. Sometimes this type of catheter is attached to a device called a port that will be under your skin. The port and catheter are put in place in a minor surgery. The catheter helps carry nutrients and medicine into your body.
Positive Affirmations - the practice of positive thinking and self-empowerment—fostering a belief that "a positive mental attitude supported by affirmations will achieve success"
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) - a mental health condition that's triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event.
POTS - form of orthostatic intolerance that is associated with the presence of excessive tachycardia and many other symptoms upon standing.
Powassan virus - a flavivirus transmitted by ticks, found in North America and in the Russian Far East. It can cause encephalitis, an infection of the brain. No vaccine or antiviral drug exists. Prevention of tick bites is the best precaution.
Practitioner - a person actively engaged in an art, discipline, or profession, especially medicine.
Protocol - a plan for a scientific experiment or for medical treatment
PRP (Platelet Rich Plasma) - a concentrate of platelet-rich plasma protein derived from whole blood, centrifuged to remove red blood cells.
Psychiatrist - a medical practitioner specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness.
Prevention - the action of stopping something from happening or arising
Psychologist - a person who studies the human mind and tries to explain why people behave in the way that they do.
Psychotherapist - a person who treats mental disorders by psychological rather than medical means.
Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy (PEMF) - uses electrical energy to direct a series of magnetic pulses through injured tissue whereby each magnetic pulse induces a tiny electrical signal that stimulates cellular repair.
Quantum Field Theory - is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics
Rage - violent, uncontrollable anger.
Relapse - a deterioration in someone's state of health after a temporary improvement.
Research - the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
Rheumatologist - an internist or pediatrician who received further training in the diagnosis (detection) and treatment of musculoskeletal disease and systemic autoimmune conditions commonly referred to as rheumatic diseases. These diseases can affect the joints, muscles, and bones causing pain, swelling, stiffness, and deformity.
Rickettsia - any of a group of very small bacteria that includes the causative agents of typhus and various other febrile diseases in humans. Like viruses, many of them can only grow inside living cells, and they are frequently transmitted by mites, ticks, or lice.
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever - (RMSF), also known as blue disease, is the most lethal and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease include sudden onset of fever, headache, and muscle pain, followed by development of rash.
Saline - Saline water is water that contains a significant concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl). The salt concentration is usually expressed in parts per thousand (permille, ‰) or parts per million (ppm).
Scar - a mark left on the skin or within body tissue where a wound, burn, or sore has not healed completely and fibrous connective tissue has developed.
Scar tissue - the connective tissue forming a scar and composed chiefly of fibroblasts in recent scars and largely of dense collagenous fibers in old scars.
Scientist - a person who is studying or has expert knowledge of one or more of the natural or physical sciences
Seizure - Uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain, which may produce a physical convulsion, minor physical signs, thought disturbances, or a combination of symptoms.
Separation Anxiety - excessive fear or anxiety about separation from home or an attachment figure.
Serology - the scientific study or diagnostic examination of blood serum, especially with regard to the response of the immune system to pathogens or introduced substances.
Serum - an amber-colored, protein-rich liquid that separates out when blood coagulates.
Social Anxiety Disorder - the fear of social situations that involve interaction with other people. You could say social anxiety is the fear and anxiety of being negatively judged and evaluated by other people. It is a pervasive disorder and causes anxiety and fear in most all areas of a person's life.
Spirochete - any of an order (Spirochaetales) of slender spirally undulating bacteria including those causing Lyme disease
SSA (Social Security Administration) - The United States Social Security Administration is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government that administers Social Security, a social insurance program consisting of retirement, disability, and survivors' benefits
SSD (Social Security Disability) - Social Security Disability Insurance pays benefits to you and certain members of your family if you are "insured," meaning that you worked long enough and paid Social Security taxes. Supplemental Security Income pays benefits based on financial need.
Stress - a state of mental or emotional strain or tension resulting from adverse or very demanding circumstances.
Suicide - the action of killing oneself intentionally.
Supplement - generally understood to include vitamins, minerals, fiber, fatty acids, or amino acids, among other substances.
Symptom - a physical or mental feature that is regarded as indicating a condition of disease, particularly such a feature that is apparent to the patient.
Talk Therapy - alternate name for the various forms of psychotherapy that emphasize the importance of the client or patient speaking to the therapist as the main means of expressing and resolving issues.
Therapeutic - relating to, or used in the treatment of disease or disorders by remedial agents or methods : curative, medicinal.
Toxicology - the branch of science concerned with the nature, effects, and detection of poisons.
Toxins - A poisonous substance, especially a protein, that is produced by living cells or organisms and is capable of causing disease when introduced into the body tissues but is often also capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies or antitoxins.
Toxoplasma - a parasitic spore-forming protozoan that can sometimes cause disease in humans.
Traditional Medicine - the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness.
Transcranial - passing or performed through the skull
Translational Medicine - an interdisciplinary branch of the biomedical field supported by three main pillars: benchside, bedside and community.
Transmission - the act of transferring something from one spot to another, a disease going from one person to another or from animal or bug to a person
Trauma - an injury (such as a wound) to living tissue caused by an extrinsic agent. b : a disordered psychic or behavioral state resulting from severe mental or emotional stress or physical injury. c : an emotional upset. the personal trauma of an executive who is not living up to his own expectations.
Treatment - medical care given to a patient for an illness or injury.
Trigger - anything, as an act or event, that serves as a stimulus and initiates or precipitates a reaction or series of reactions
Urologist - a doctor who specializes in the study or treatment of the function and disorders of the urinary system.
UVLrx - intravenous light therapy delivered directly within a blood vessel, shining on all blood and blood-based components moving past the IV catheter.
Vector-borne diseases - human illnesses caused by parasites, viruses and bacteria that are transmitted by mosquitoes, sandflies, triatomine bugs, blackflies, ticks, tsetse flies, mites, snails and lice, etc
Vegan - using or containing no animal products
Virology - the branch of science that deals with the study of viruses.
Virus - an infective agent that typically consists of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat, is too small to be seen by light microscopy, and is able to multiply only within the living cells of a host.
Western Blot - a laboratory blood test to detect the presence of antibodies to specific antigens. It is regarded as more precise than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and is sometimes used to check the validity of ELISA tests.
West Nile Virus - a flavivirus of African origin that can be spread to humans and other mammals via mosquitoes, causing encephalitis and flulike symptoms, with some fatalities.
Yeast - a microscopic fungus consisting of single oval cells that reproduce by budding, and are capable of converting sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Yersinia - a genus of bacteria in the family Yersiniaceae. Yersinia species are Gram-negative, coccobacilli bacteria, a few micrometers long and fractions of a micrometer in diameter, and are facultative anaerobes.
Yoga - a Hindu spiritual and ascetic discipline, a part of which, including breath control, simple meditation, and the adoption of specific bodily postures, is widely practiced for health and relaxation.